Ngữ pháp và bài tập Tiếng Anh 11 phần 3 – Trường THPT Nguyễn Trãi
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Ngữ pháp và bài tập Tiếng Anh 11 phần 3

Người gửi: 

              Thầy Giang Lương Hùng 

         Giáo viên: Tiếng Anh – Trường THPT Nguyễn Trãi – Thái  bình.  

         Email: giangluonghung@yahoo.com

         Blog: vn.myblog.yahoo.com/giangluonghung

           Website: violet.vn/giangluonghung

§9. Infinitive and Gerund Revision

4Infinitive

There are 2 kinds of infinitive: infinitive with to (to-infinitive) and infinitive without to.

Infinitive with to (to-infinitive)

  • Certain verbs, adjectives and expressions can be followed by infinitive with to.

        The manager asked his secretary to type the letter for him.

        I’m glad to hear that you are recovering. 

       There’s nothing left to eat.

  • Some common verbs and adjectives followed by to-infinitive.
Verbs Adjectives Expressions
allow/ ask/ invite + Ohopetrywantwould like/ love delightedeagergladhappyhesitantkind likelyluckypleasedreluctantwilling There is something to-infinitiveThere is nothing to-infinitiveS + have something to-infinitiveenough to-infinitivetoo + adj/ adv + to-infinitive
       

Infinitive without to

  • Some common verbs and expressions followed by infinitive without to.
Let/ have/ suggest + O + infinitive without toSee/ hear + O + infinitive without to

                I suggest you travel by bike to avoid traffic jams.

                I heard Xuan chat with her friend on the phone yesterday.

4Gerund

  • Some common verbs followed by gerund.
admitavoidcan’t bearcan’t helpcontinuedelay denyenjoyfinishkeepmindmiss postponepracticequitrecommendrisksuggest

Nguyet delayed studying at the university to open a shop.

Mrs. Huong risked investing all her money on her new company.

Exercises

A. Infinitive or gerund? Use the infinitive of gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.

  1. A: Hang’s grandmother has just passed away.

        B: I’m sorry (hear) ………………… about that.

  1. Hai wants (travel) ………………… to Hai Phong but he doesn’t have enough money (go) …………………
  2. I don’t mind (share) ………………… my book in case you doesn’t have one.
  3. Toan admitted (break) ………………… the flower case.
  4. Thuy is really interested in (do) ………………… the research. I saw her (work) ………………… alone in the lab yesterday.
  5. A: Why is the door open? I remember (lock) ………………… it.

        B: You are absent-minded. You told me (leave) ………………… it open since         you just went out for a minute. Remember?

  1. A: It’s late. Why don’t you go home?

        B: I can’t help (wait) ………………… a little more. I’m eager (know) ………………… the test result.

  1. On the way to the company, Mr. Tuan felt someone (following) ………………… him.
  2. Don’t reluctant (help) ………………… the victims of the hurricane.
  3. Trang invited me (eat) ………………… out, but my parents didn’t let me (go) ………………… out so late.

B. Underline the most appropriate words or phrases.

  1. Trang failed ………………… the essay into Vietnamese because there are too many unfamiliar expressions.

        A. translate        B. to translate        C. translating

  1. Hoai stopped ………………… the phone.

        A. cook to answer        B. to cook answering        C. cooking to answer

  1. Knowing that I had some problems with my project, the professor offered ………………… me.

        A. help        B. to help        C. helping

  1. Mr. Long is a very good dentist. I had him ……………… my teeth last month.

        A. fill        B. to fill        C. filling

  1. Just finish your work. I don’t mind …………………

        A. wait        B. to wait        C. waiting

  1. Teacher (to student). If you have any questions, feel free ………………… me after class.

        A. contact        B. to contact        C. contacting

  1. My older sister let me ………………… her motorbike to go out with friends, but she doesn’t allow me ………………… out of the city.

        A. take, to go        B. to take, to go        C. take, go

  1. Although we tried ………………… him ………………… on a picnic with class, he kept …………………

        A. to convince, going, refusing        B. to convince, to go, refusing        C. convincing, to go, refuse

C. Rewrite these sentences, using the words in the parentheses.

  1. The picture is too high for me to reach. (ENOUGH)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You have one more book to read in order to make the presentation. (THERE)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Let’s go on a picnic this weekend. (SUGGEST)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Do you want to come over for dinner tomorrow? (HOW ABOUT)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mrs. Huong let her son go on a picnic with his friends. (PERMIT)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Prices are supposed to go up. (LIKELY)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The police continued searching everywhere for the missing man. (GO ON)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Trung is always willing to help others whenever they need. (HESITATE)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

D. Answer the following question

  1. What do you expect to do after you graduate from high school?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Do you often practice speaking English? Where and with whom?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. What do you want to become when you are over twenty?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Where do you suggest your friend go if s/ he has vacation?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. List three things that your parents don’t let you do?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Have you ever planned to live on your own? If you are allowed to, what do you intend to do to earn a living?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Who will ever have your bicycle repaired once the brake doesn’t work? (use have + O + infinitive without to)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Whenever you have a problem, who is the first person that is always willing to help you?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  

§10. Linking words Revision

4Definition

Linking words are words used to link clauses or sentences.

Tam likes leaning English. However, he is too shy to speak English in front of the class.

4Popular linking words

Addition and, additionally, in addition, besides, moreover, furthermore, what is more, in addition to + n, apart from + n
Contrast but, though, however, nevertheless
Result hence, thus, as a result, the result of that is …, as a consequence, consequently
Example for example, for instance
Generalization in general, generally, to sum up

Life in big cities is very comfortable. There are many parks where the whole family can relax at weekends. Besides, there are supermarkets where you can both go shopping and enjoy yourself.

Life in big cities is very comfortable. Nevertheless, it may be stressful to some people.

If parents indulge their children too much, they may spoil them. Hence, children should be punished only when they do something wrong.

4Note

Sometimes linking words can be put after the subject.

It is assumed that big cities are heavens. City dwellers, however, have to face many problems. 

ExercisesA. Choose the best linking word to fill in each blank.

  1. Women nowadays have their social roles. They work as doctors, engineers, and even construction workers. …………………, some women become the leaders of their countries.

        A. As a result                                                       B. In addition to                 C. In general                                                           D. Additionally

  1. English has become the key to success. …………………, more and more people rush to study English in language centers.

        A. For example                                                      B. As a consequence        C. Additionally                                                     D. Nevertheless

  1. Money can guarantee a comfortable life. …………………, it cannot always bring happiness.

        A. What is more                                                   B. Consequently                  C. However                                                          D. To sum up

  1. Travelling by public means of transportation can help save money. …………………, it costs us only 6,000 dong to go to school and come back home while we have to spend 10,000 dong filling the petrol tank of the motorbike.

        A. For instance                                                     B. Example                             C. Such as                                                            D. All are correct

  1. Studying abroad is a good opportunity to develop our foreign language. …………………, not everyone can afford it.

        A. Nevertheless                                                   B. But                                      C. Besides                                                             D. Thus

B. There is a passage about the benefits of games. Complete each numbered blank in the passage with one of the following linking words. Capitalize it where necessary.

for instanceconsequently andsince althoughwhat is more in general

It is argued that games are but a kind of entertainment, and that it is a waste of time to spend so much time playing games. I myself think that games are much more than recreation (1)………………… they teach us a lot of useful things, among which are team spirit, competence of observation, and wishes.To begin with, team sport games such as soccer, volleyball or basketball give us lessons on solidarity and cooperation. Taking part in these games, individuals become members of a group and they play for the sake of their group; thus they have to cooperate well with one another. Cooperation, as we know it, is one of the essential factors that bring about success in studies and work. (2) …………………, solidarity and cooperation which stems from games can perfectly become the key to success.(3) …………………, games help us improve our competence of observation; hence they become a trainer of our minds. Whatever games we play; sport games or computer games, only when we highly concentrate on the games can we win. The computer game Mario, (4) …………………, is one which requires much of our attention  and observation or we will get lost. Life is just the same; if we do not try our best to choose the right ways, it is inevitable that we will get lost in hundreds or even thousands of choices and opportunities in life.Finally, children games are a good environment for wishes to derive from. In our childhood games, we often act as teachers, doctors, engineers, or even the prime minister. Aren’t they our very romantic dreams? (5) ………………… many people really make dreams come true when they grow up. Bill Gates insists that we should dare to wish if we want to succeed and wishes seem to develop from those games. Din Bo Linh, a talented king in Vietnamese history, liked playing as a soldier fighting against invaders when he was young. And false battles in childhood games eventually turned out to be real ones when he grew up. (6) ………………… it is a long distance from dreams to reality, aren’t those wishes the very beginning of our success?(7) …………………, games are worth spending time. We can more or less benefit from games we play if we know how to take advantage of them.

C. People say that television has bad influence on young people nowadays. Do you agree? Within 150 words, write your ideas and use examples to support your ideas. Use linking words to make your passage coherent.Suggested ideas:Agree

  • A lot of violence and sex on TV
  • Bad influence on eyesight
  • Lack of educational programs

Disagree

  • A way of learning new things (news programs, “Travel Around The World”, game shows)
  • Useful entertainment
  • Advertisements on TV: provide useful information about the market and products.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  

§11. Modal verbs Revision

4Ability

  • We use can or be able to to express ability.

        Hai can sing very well.

        I believe that I will be able to finish the assignment on time.

  • We use could as the past form of can.

        I couldn’t swim when I was eight, but now I am among the best swimmers in my class.

4Possibility

  • We use can, could, may or might to express possibility.

        You can swim in this lake in the summer since the water is not very cold.

        Hung isn’t in now. He could be in the bookstore. (Perhaps he is in the bookstore.)

        It may/ might be Le on the phone.

  • We use must/ could/ may/ might + have + past participle to express speculations about past actions.

        Duyen hasn’t come yet. She could/ may/ might have missed the train.

  • However, can, could, may, might are not always used interchangeably.

        (See §12. Modal Verbs: Degrees of Certainty and Formality for details).

4Permission

  • Can, could, and may are used to express permission.

        Could you lend me some money?

        You can go out now but make sure to come home before 9 o’clock.

        A student (to his teacher): May I go out?

  • There is a slight difference in the use of can, could and may to express permission. (See §12. Modal Verbs: Degrees of Certainty and Formality for details).

4Obligation

  • Should and ought to are used to give advice.

        You should/ ought to write to your uncle to thank him for his gift.

  • Must is used to express speaker’s authority.

        Teacher (to his students): You must wear uniform when you go to school.

        (We must wear uniform because the teacher wants us to.)

  • Have to is used to express external authority.

        It is raining. I have to stay at home. (I can’t go out because of the weather.)

  • Mustn’t = be not allowed to

        Don’t have to = needn’t

        You mustn’t write on the desk. = You are not allowed to write on the desk.

        You don’t have to go to the market. We still have enough food.

        = You needn’t go to the market, but it’s OK if you want to go.

 Exercises

A. Underline the modal verbs in the following sentences and write the function of each modal under the underlined word: ability, advice, possibility, permission or obligation. The first sentence is done for you.

  1. May I have a day off tomorrow? My son is sick.

        Permission

  1. You shouldn’t be so shy. You have to believe your ability.

 

  1. Why are your clothes so dirty? You must have played near the lake.

 

  1. Don’t bother. I can do the job myself.

 

  1. You can watch TV after finishing your homework.

 

  1. You might have seen your old friend if you hadn’t left so early.

 

  1. You don’t have to get up early. I know you were exhausted last night.

 

  1. I really didn’t believe that she even couldn’t iron her own clothes.

 B. Find a sentence in the box that has similar meaning to that of each of the sentences below.

You mustn’t wear jackets hereCan I have some drinkShould I drink milk You may have got lostYou don’t have to wear jackets hereYou may get lost
  1. Is it good for my health if I drink milk?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. I want some milk, please.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You are not allowed to wear jackets here.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You needn’t wear jackets here. It’s not very cold.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Don’t follow that way. I’m not sure, but perhaps it isn’t the right way.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Why are you so late? I think they you couldn’t find the way. Right?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 C. Underline the correct modal verb.

  1. If Hang wants to please her mother, she (should/ ought to) study harder.
  2. Tran has a piano at home, but she (can/ isn’t able to) play it.
  3. Minh (can’t/ couldn’t) play badminton when she was young, but now she plays very well.
  4. That girl looks very familiar. I (could have seen/ could see) her somewhere.
  5. You (mustn’t/ don’t have to) walk on the grass.
  6. Phuong (may/ ought to) talk to her mother about her problem.
  7. A: Can you lend me a hand?

        B: I (could/ would) if I (could/ would). I’m very busy right now.

  1. A: Do you have any plan for the coming summer vacation?

        B: I’m not sure but I (might go/ might have gone) to Da Nang in September.

D. Write true sentences about you.

  1. Three things that you can do well.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Three things you guess may happen in the next decade.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Three things you should do to keep fit.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Three things you are allowed to do. (Use can, could or may. )

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Three things you are not allowed to do.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 

 §12. Modal Verbs: Degrees of Certainty and Formality Revision

4Degrees of certainty

  • Degrees of certainty refer to how sure we are about the possibility of (doing) something.
  • In the present:

        Why isn’t Thuan here now?

        – He is busy with the housework.                      à 100% sure

        – He must be busy with the housework            à 95% sure

        – He could be busy with the housework          à not very sure

        – He may be busy with the housework             à not very sure

        – He might be busy with the housework          à not very sure

  • In the present (negative)

        Bich is in Ha Noi now. It can’t/ couldn’t be her outside the door.  à99% sure

        Bich is in Ha Noi now. It mustn’t be her outside the door.  à95% sure

        I think Bich is in Ha Noi now. It may not her outside the door.  à not very sure

        I think Bich is in Ha Noi now. It might not her outside the door. ànot very sure

  • In the past:

        The degrees of certainty in the past are similar to those in the present. 

        We use modal + have + past participle

        Why is the car so clean? You must have washed it.

4Degree of formality

  • Degrees of formality refer to how formal we are when we make a request.
  • How formal we are depends on the relationship between speakers and the difficulty of the request.
More formal Less formal MayCouldCan

                Employee (to employer): May I borrow your laptop for a day?

                Student (to teacher): Could I ask you a question?

                Student (to a friend): Can I borrow your notebook?

 Exercises

A. Choose the most appropriate reason for each of the following utterances.

  1. – Do you think that Chanh will be employed?

        – He couldn’t be employed.

        A. He performed rather well in the interview.

        B. He told me that he wasn’t very confident.

        C. He can’t speak English while the employer requires applicants to speak English well.

  1. – Why is Thanh in bad mood today?

        – He may be sick

.        A. I’m sure about that because I saw him take some medicines this morning.

        B. I just guess so. Sick people are often in bad mood.

  1. – Why was Minh late for class yesterday?

        – He might have got stuck in a traffic jam.

        A. I think so because the streets are very crowded nowadays.

        B. I saw a traffic jam near his house on the way I came here.

  1. – Hoang’s neighbor had a party last night. They made a lot of noise. Was he annoyed?

        – He must have been very annoyed.

        A. I don’t know. Perhaps he didn’t hear the noise.

        B. Sure. He couldn’t sleep all night.

  1. – Why don’t you invite Lan to eat dinner?

        – She may not be hungry.

        A. She has just eaten a lot with her friends.

        B. She doesn’t seem to be hungry.

B. Put the following sentences in the correct order to make meaningful conversations.

Conversation 1

          Yeah. Not a house. There’s smoke from it. It might be a factory.

          A house? So let’s go there and ask for some water.

          What’s that over there? I can’t see clearly.

          Oh no! That mustn’t be a house. It is as big as a castle. Let’s go further to see what it is.

          That may be a house.

          I know what it is now. It is the old palace that the government is intending to rebuild. Don’t you remember?

          It couldn’t be a factory. Factories have been all moved away to reduce pollution.

Conversation 2

          When will you go?

          It might belong to an Australian university.

          Ah. It must be from a French university.

          Yes. I will attend a free course in France for a year.

          Just guess.

          You know what? I won a scholarship from a foreign university last month.

          It can’t be from an Australian university. I can’t speak English. I study French.

          I’m not sure. Maybe in July.

          Really? You must have been very happy. What organization does the scholarship belong to?

C. Guess why the following things happen. Use different modals to express your certainty.

  1. Trong is sleeping in class.

        He could have stayed up late last night.

  1. My book has disappeared.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. A small girl is crying in the market.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mr. Thang got very angry yesterday.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Chi had an appointment with the doctor yesterday but she didn’t come.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Ngoc is in hospital.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The factory has been closed.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Quyen looks very sad today.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

D. Make requests from the following situations. Use modal verbs.

  1. You want to travel to Ha Noi by train. You telephone the railway station and ask when the train leaves.

        Can/ Could you please tell me when the train to Ha Noi leaves?

  1. You don’t have a pencil. You want to borrow your friend’s pencil.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You want to have a day off tomorrow. Ask your teacher.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You are receptionist in a hotel. A guest wants to check in. You ask his name and phone number.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You want to go out in the evening with your friends. Ask for your Mum’s permission.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You are going to a wedding next week. You want to borrow your friend’s new short which (s)he has never worn.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  

§13. Passive Verbs Followed by Infinitive Construction Revision

4Introduction

When we see the structure People + assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand, etc., we can use 2 kinds of passive voice:

  • It is/ was considered/ said/ etc. + that + S + V

        In the past, people believed that the earth was flat.

        à In the past, it was believed that the earth was flat.

  • S + be + considered/ said/ etc. + to-infinitive

        In the past, people believed that the earth was flat.

        à In the past, the earth was believed to be flat.

4Note

  • We can use a perfect infinitive when the thought is about a previous action.

        They assume that he broke into the house last week.

        à He is assumed to have broken into the house last week.

  • When suppose is followed by an infinitive in the passive form, the meaning is not equal to that of suppose in the active form.

        You are supposed to complete the assignment in two weeks. 

       = It is your duty to complete it in two weeks. 

       = You should complete it in two weeks.

  • However, be supposed to sometimes means be said to.

        The new comedy is supposed to be very interesting.

        = The new comedy is said to be very interesting.

  • Infinitives following passive verbs should be to-infinitive.

        I saw Suong wash the dishes.

        à Suong was seen to wash the dishes. 

Exercises

A. Match each sentence in column A to its following in column B.

A   B
1.        The storm was very devastated.2.        The government is expected to improve the life in that slum.3.        We should wait before buying a new television.4.        Students are supposed to attend at least 80% of the classes.5.        It is believed that English is necessary in any job.6.        It is assumed that we can master English by learning grammar.7.        The export of rice is estimated to grow this year.8.        The man was reported to have ridden his motorbike at 70 kilometers an hour.   a)       In fact, the best way to study English is to try every chance to communicate.b)       It is said that the prices will go down when Viet Nam joins WTO.c)       He had to pay a fine.d)       People there don’t have even clean water to use.e)       Thousands of people were reported to lose their houses.f)        Farmers can live on their crops now.g)       More and more people study in language centers.h)       Otherwise, they won’t be allowed to take the final exam.

B. Below are the rumors about Chi. Read the situations and use passive sentences with the verbs provided.

  1. Chi is one of the best and hard-working students in class as all her classmates say. (SAY)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Although the exam results have not been informed, everyone believes that Chi will come first in the exam. (BELIEVE)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Chi is leader of group two but it seems to many students that she does not enjoy studying in groups. (THINK)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. As far as I know, Chi was shouted by her parents yesterday as she went out without their permissions. (KNOW)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Nhan’s study has been improved a lot since Chi agreed to help him. (REPORT)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The teacher asked Chi to draw a map for class presentation because she is very skillful at drawing map. (SUPPOSE)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Everyone thinks that Chi studies in a language center since her English is excellent. In fact, she doesn’t. (ASSUME)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Chi’s friends say that she has spent half of her scholarship helping poor children. (SAY)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

C. Complete the following sentences with the verbs in the box. Use the following verbs believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand to make the passive voice.

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  1. What are you doing here? You …………………… your room now.
  2. The man …………………… everywhere in Viet Nam.
  3. The flood …………………… five people.
  4. He …………………… his daughter from school but he forgot.
  5. Mr. Hoa …………………… badly injured in the head in the accident because he didn’t wear a helmet.
  6. The couple …………………… the 10th wedding anniversary in a small restaurant.
  7. The boy …………………… computer games so much that he became short-sighted.
  8. The neighbor …………………… the girl while her mother wasn’t at home.
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